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  • 순창출장안마⇔출장부르는법❀순창출장샵안내<순창마사지 모음>☛〔순창tumblr 모텔〕☏순창마사지 도구☠순창의정부 대딸방☂순창안마방 오픈시간❤순창출장샵☺순창단체 안마방

    As UN climate negotiations resume in Bonn, we look at why the crunch Paris climate conference from 30 November to 11 December is so important

    카지노사이트
    French foreign minister Laurent Fabius talks to delegates during the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Bonn, Germany. Photograph: Martin Meissner/AP

    순창출장안마☑24시출장샵◕순창출장샵안내<순창서현역 안마방>┳〔순창뱃살 마사지〕♭순창나주 마사지➡순창오목교 안마방┆순창안마방 경험♜순창송우리 안마방➹순창여수 안마방

    The governments of more than 190 nations 전주안와상융기 마사지 , aimed at reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and thus avoiding the threat of dangerous climate change.

    순창출장안마▒출장부르는법┑순창출장샵안내<순창게이 마사지>┯〔순창다방 티켓 썰〕❀순창성감대 마사지レ순창눈커지는 마사지➡순창미시출장안마♀순창안마방 파워배드↟순창해운대 안마방

    Current commitments on greenhouse gas emissions run out in 2020, so at Paris governments are expected to produce an agreement on what happens for the decade after that at least, and potentially beyond.

    Emissions trajectory Photograph: Guardian

    순창출장안마☇출장부르는법→순창출장샵안내<순창모텔 여자>↹〔순창출장 보증금〕◐순창로드샵 단속☀순창이태원 마사지♧순창안마방 휴게텔⇦순창마사지 도구♥순창전립선 마사지

    Scientists have warned that if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, we will pass the threshold beyond which global warming becomes catastrophic and irreversible. That threshold is estimated as a temperature rise of 2C above pre-industrial levels, and on current emissions trajectories 카지노사이트 . That may not sound like much, but the temperature difference between today’s world and the last ice age was about 5C, so seemingly small changes in temperature can mean big differences for the Earth.

    순창출장안마◦24시출장샵»순창출장샵안내<순창대산 마사지>➴〔순창역삼동 마사지〕╪순창삼천포 안마방√순창카오산로드 마사지✲순창마사지 ㅁㅁㄹ 뜻▩순창안마방 성병ζ순창대구 동대구역 모텔

    They have: global negotiations on climate change have been carrying on for more than 20 years. The history of climate change goes back much further: in the 19th century, physicists theorised about the role of greenhouse gases, chiefly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere, and several suggested that the warming effect would increase alongside the levels of these gases in the atmosphere. But this was all theoretical.

    Only in the past few decades have scientists begun the measurements necessary to establish a relationship between current carbon levels and temperatures, and the science conducted since then 부천족저근막염 마사지 : that rising greenhouse gas emissions, arising from our use of fossil fuels and our industries, lead to higher temperatures.

    순창출장안마◎24시출장샵↔순창출장샵안내<순창거제 안마방 추천>[〔순창레이크호텔 마사지〕♭순창김연아 안마방⇠순창안마방 부산◐순창백석동 마사지❣순창금정 안마방➚순창안마방 2:1

    No. Global temperatures have been on a clear upward path. There was a spike in 1998, after which temperatures were lower – 천안출장안마 – that led some climate sceptics to claim that the world was cooling.

    순창출장안마순창로미 로미 마사지 란

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  • But it is important to note that temperatures have not fallen, or stalled – they have continued to rise. Given the variations that characterise our weather systems, a period in which the rate of warming slowed is not unexpected.

    For the past two years, the rate of warming seems to have accelerated again , but little can be construed from that.

    순창출장안마┲24시출장샵υ순창출장샵안내<순창러브어게인 만남>◀〔순창마사지 롤러〕♨순창어방동 마사지✑순창마사지 어플┛순창에가오 마사지カ순창예약✒순창2콩 안마방

    In 1992, governments met in Rio de Janeiro and 의령안마방 무료야동 . That agreement, still in force, bound governments to take action to avoid dangerous climate change, but did not specify what actions. Over the following five years, governments wrangled over what each should do, and what should be the role of developed countries versus poorer nations.

    Those years of argument produced, in 1997, 전주출장샵 . That pact required worldwide cuts in emissions of about 5%, compared with 1990 levels, by 2012, and each developed country was allotted a target on emissions reductions. But developing countries, including China, South Korea, Mexico and other rapidly emerging economies, were given no targets and allowed to increase their emissions at will.

    카지노사이트
    계룡베트남 마사지 가격 온라인카지노 함안안마방 썰
    People sign the Earth pledge made at the the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in June 1992. Photograph: UN Photo

    Al Gore, then US vice-president, signed up to the protocol, but it was quickly apparent that it would never be ratified by the US Congress. Legally, the protocol could not come into force until countries representing 55% of global emissions had ratified it. With the US – then the world’s biggest emitter – on the outside, that was not going to happen.

    So for most of the following decade, the Kyoto protocol remained in abeyance and global climate change negotiations ground to a near-halt. But in late 2004, 대구출장안마 – unexpectedly, and as part of a move to have its application for World Trade Organisation membership accepted by the European Union. That made up the weight needed, and the protocol finally came into force.

    순창출장안마⇥예약↥순창출장샵안내<순창여성전용 마사지>⇖〔순창동탄 마사지〕┨순창유흥인 토렌트┙순창베트남 마사지 야동⇃순창갑상선 마사지➻순창석계 마사지☂순창삼산동 안마방

    Not quite. The US, under George W Bush, remained firmly outside Kyoto, so although the UN negotiations carried on year after year, the US negotiators were often in different rooms from the rest of the world. It was clear a new approach was needed that could bring the US in, and encourage the major developing economies – especially China, now the world’s biggest emitter – to take on limits to their emissions.

    What followed was, 울진금촌 안마방 an action plan that set the world on the course to a new agreement that would take over from Kyoto.

    순창출장안마♥예약♥순창출장샵안내<순창천안 오피스>♦〔순창섹시 마사지〕▨순창출장여대생∴순창안마방 투샷§순창출장미인아가씨♭순창공덕 마사지┅순창신천 안마방

    It did take a long time. But getting agreement from 196 countries was never going to be easy. The next act of this long-running drama fully demonstrated that: the 제주출장안마 .

    하남천안 유흥
    부평상록수 안마방 dhc2016.xyz 금산창원 출장 숙소
    US president Barack Obama along with European leaders including German chancellor Angela Merkel, centre, attend negotiations on the final night of the Copenhagen UN Climate Change summit in Denmark on 18 December 2009. Photograph: Pool/Getty Images

    순창출장안마➳24시출장샵☱순창출장샵안내<순창쥬니공주 안마방>-〔순창마사지 교육〕♛순창부천 마사지⊙순창안마방 미러✑순창여성전용 안마방✌순창가락시장 마사지ヘ순창구월동 마사지

    Everything but the treaty. All of the world’s developed countries and the biggest developing countries agreed – for the first time – to limits on their greenhouse gas emissions. This was a landmark, as it meant the world’s biggest emitters were united towards a single goal.

    The emissions reductions agreed on were still not enough to meet scientific advice, but they were a big advance on reducing emissions compared with “business as usual”.

    But what didn’t happen turned out to be the point that NGOs and many in the press seized on. 서울출장안마 .

    순창출장안마↶예약☆순창출장샵안내<순창아가씨 출장>⇃〔순창군산 터미널 모텔〕┡순창카톡►순창광주 마사지⊙순창파주 안마방♦순창안마방 커뮤니티✪순창정자역 안마방

    It depends on your viewpoint. The Kyoto protocol was a beautifully written, watertight, fully legally binding international treaty, a sub-treaty of the similarly binding UNFCCC. But it never met its objectives, because it wasn’t ratified by the US, and not by Russia until it was too late. And 포항출장샵 .

    The Copenhagen agreement, on the other hand, was not fully adopted by the UN in 2009 because of last-minute chaos at the conference, though it was ratified the following year 파주다낭 마사지 vip . For this reason, the Copenhagen agreement was derided as a failure by green groups.

    순창출장안마μ출장부르는법►순창출장샵안내<순창오리역 안마방>■〔순창삼산동 마사지〕⊙순창사상 안마방┗순창금정 마사지✏순창공유 마사지 찌라시╒순창오일 마사지 야동☋순창마사지 받다가

    But the targets agreed at Copenhagen, in the form of a document signed by world leaders, still stand.

    Representatives of governments from more than 190 nations will try to reach an agreement on carbon emissions at the COP 21 Paris climate talks in December. Photograph: COP21

    순창출장안마♖예약금없는출장샵➻순창출장샵안내<순창연예인 안마방>⇪〔순창최음제 마사지〕❤순창마사지 av▣순창안마방 첫경험¤순창안마방 사까시▧순창창원 봉곡동 안마방┮순창소라넷 마사지

    We know already what the biggest emitters have committed to. The 대전일본 보빨 , compared with 1990 levels, by 2030. The 전주출장샵 , compared with 2005 levels, by 2025. 대전출장샵 .

    Nations responsible for more than 90% of global emissions have now come up with their targets – 춘천인계동 안마방 . These include all of the major developed and developing countries, though their contributions vary: in the case of developed countries, actual cuts in emissions, but for developing countries a range of targets including limits on emissions compared to “business as usual”, and pledges to increase low-carbon energy or preserve forests.

    Analysis of the INDCS, endorsed by the UN, has suggested that 대구출장샵 . That is not quite enough to meet the scientific advice. However, that is not the end of the story. One of the key components of any Paris agreement would be to institute a system of review of the emissions targets every five years, with a view to ratcheting them upwards.

    Another, and complementary, approach is to make more effort to bring down emissions outside the UN process, for instance by engaging “non-state actors” such as cities, local governments and businesses to do more.

    순창출장안마▬출장부르는법◇순창출장샵안내<순창금호동 안마방>✘〔순창마사지 레전드 품번〕╒순창발리 마사지♞순창수안보 마사지╉순창마산 모텔 추천➸순창코 마사지 전후シ순창안마방 복장

    Not at all – the other key question, apart from emissions reductions, is finance. Poorer countries want the rich world to provide them with financial help that will enable them to invest in clean technology to cut their greenhouse gas emissions, and to adapt their infrastructure to the likely damage from climate change.

    This is a hugely contentious issue. At Copenhagen, where the finance part of the deal was only sorted out at the very last minute, 창원출장샵 , and they said that by 2020, financial flows of at least $100bn a year would be provided.

    As a cornerstone of any Paris agreement, poor countries want assurances that this pledge will be met. That has now been given, in several forms: 카지노사이트 showing that two thirds of the finance required is already being supplied; and egw.xyz showed that the remainder can be made up by increased finance from the World Bank and other development banks, and from the private sector. The World Bank and several governments have already committed to upping their financial assistance, meaning that a clear path towards the 2020 target can now be discerned.

    There is more, however. Poor nations also want a similar provision in place beyond 2020, but there is strong disagreement over how this should be done. Some want all the money to come from rich country governments, but those governments are adamant that they will not provide such funding solely from the public purse. They want international development banks, such as the World Bank, to play a role, and they want most of the funding to come from the private sector.

    An agreement on this is still possible, but it will be one of the main obstacles to a Paris deal.

    순창출장안마⇃24시출장샵➷순창출장샵안내<순창안마방 입싸>큐〔순창하드코어 안마방〕☻순창마송 여관⇚순창하단 안마방♕순창북창동 후기┛순창야동 실제ユ순창다낭 마사지 추천

    Yes. The heads of state or government of more than 130 countries have already said they will come. These include Barack Obama of the US, Xi Jinping of China, Narendra Modi of India, Angela Merkel of Germany and David Cameron of the UK. have as yet pulled out as a result of the terrorist attacks on Paris, and security has been stepped up as an assurance. Unlike the Copenhagen talks, however, at which world leaders turned up at the last minute of the two weeks of talks to find their negotiating teams in chaos and without a clear agreement for them to sign, this time the leaders will arrive at the beginning of the conference, give their negotiating teams clear instructions, and expect a fully formed agreement at the end of it.

    On behalf of the French government, the conference will be led by foreign minister Laurent Fabius, and environment minister Segolene Royal, but the French president Francois Hollande will also play a key role. They are all confident that a deal can be made.

    양양출장안마추천
    군산출장안마 밀양시각장애인 마사지 카지노사이트
    French president Francois Hollande. Photograph: Philippe Wojazer /Pool/EPA

    순창출장안마╩예약금없는출장샵☀순창출장샵안내<순창부산 모텔 출장>⇐〔순창에가오 마사지〕τ순창인덕원 마사지√순창24시간 안마방♥순창부산역 마사지╯순창계룡 안마방╰순창안마방 휴게

    The key question now is over security. With the French capital under recent attack, and reports of fresh assaults averted by the armed forces, the atmosphere in Paris will be unlike any city that has hosted major international talks before. Security will be paramount - the French police and army will be on the streets, and the venue will be patrolled by uniformed UN guards - but the atrocities of 13 November will hang heavily on all delegates. This may mean that when world leaders attend private meetings, terrorism is discussed before climate change. But it may also mean that delegates are under more pressure than ever to come up with a deal, given the tragic circumstances surrounding them.순창출장안마순창안마방 콘돔☷순창어깨통증 마사지♖〔순창국노 torrent〕순창얼굴 경락 마사지▄순창여관 녀✉순창포항 타이 마사지↽순창아중리 안마방ヒ카지노사이트24시출장샵순창칠곡3지구 마사지→순창안마방 비용♫「순창화정 마사지」순창광주 터미널 근처 모텔◐순창강남 안마방➻순창안마방 알바 단속유순창안마방 시스템▩순창출장안마구례별내 마사지순창동남아 안마방┪순창익산 모텔 추천◊「순창제주시 안마방」순창자궁 마사지╓순창타이 마사지 후기☂순창천안안마ν순창옥계 마사지┗순창강남역 안마방⇪순창안마방 태국녀⇙【순창안마방 여자】순창냥이 마사지⇟순창하복대 안마방↠순창천안안마╬순창선릉역 마사지◑순창다방 티켓 썰ψ순창안마방 누드テ{순창강남 왁싱샵}순창수안보 마사지➴순창출장 마사지 썰▌순창마사지 전단지✿순창제주시 안마방⇘순창김해 안마방└순창강원도 안마방☁‹순창까치산 안마방›순창에로 마사지.순창길동 안마방▼순창강남 안마방 내상☞순창마사지 오일φ출장부르는법산청신림역 안마방출장부르는법순창모텔 마사지╕순창국 노ω〈순창안마방 노콘〉순창안마방 카드결제⇗순창출장 보증금◎순창전주 안마방↱순창천안 출장 만남╥순창출장안마순창출장안마온라인카지노순창일산 안마방 가격순창송탄 여관순창정지훈 안마방순창몰카 안마방순창출장안마순창부산 마사지☍순창안마방 휴게☆﹝순창수암 마사지﹞순창안마방 단골▶순창제주시 안마방➡순창호이안 마사지↣순창출장서비스リ화순군포 마사지

    If nations can meet and agree equitable goals on the climate, in these circumstances, it will be a triumph for international cooperation, for our wellbeing and security, and for faith in the future, in the face of forces who wish to destroy all three.

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